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Looking for previous revisions of this standard? Energy Modeling Best Practices and Applications. Fundamentals and Application of Standard Home Technical Resources Bookstore.
Share This. Generally, the evaluation of comfort in existing buildings can be performed from two perspectives: from occupant satisfaction survey and physical environmental measurements.
Indoor thermal comfort can be determined from the responses of the occupant survey. The survey shall be distributed to the entire occupancy or representative part of the occupancy.
If that number is between 20 and 45, the minimum number of responses is When the number is under 20, at least 16 must reply for the survey to make the survey representative.
For satisfaction surveys, the thermal satisfaction scale shall end with choices: "very satisfied" and "very dissatisfied", and, also, the occupants should be allowed to explain their dissatisfaction by answering an open-ended question.
As for point-in-time surveys, the survey should be solicited during the time of occupancy, and the satisfaction scale ought to be continuous.
There should be at least seven points on the scale ending with "very acceptable" and "very unacceptable. For mechanically conditioned spaces, the PMV-based comfort zone has to be determined, which includes measuring and recording the metabolic activity and clothing insulation.
The comfort zone boundaries must be adjusted to the air movements, and the zone conditions should be adjusted to avoid local thermal discomfort.
For occupant-controlled naturally conditioned space, the adaptive model shall be used to determine the thermal comfort boundaries.
For such spaces, the indoor and outdoor air temperature and mean radiant temperature and the air speed need to be measured. The measurement locations should be where the occupants are expected to spend time in.
If there are multiple such locations, the measurement can be performed at a representative location. For seating occupants, the air temperature and air speed measurements shall be taken at heights of 0.
The heights need to be adjusted for standing persons. The standard suggests that the time of measurements should last two or more hours long, and it should also be a representative time of the year for this specific building.
Measuring time step should be no more than five minutes for air temperature, mean radiant temperature, and humidity, and no more than three minutes for the air speed.
In order to achieve acceptable results, the standard also suggests the minimum equipment accuracy based the current industry standard.
When extracting environmental data from the Building Administration System, one should evaluate the location, height, and time step of the sensors based on the previous suggestion.
To evaluate the probability of satisfaction from satisfaction surveys, the standard suggests dividing the number of the votes falling between "just satisfied" and "very satisfied" by the total number of votes in that questions.
The answers of open-ended questions from "very dissatisfied" occupants should be documented for later analysis. One has to keep in mind that the results from point-in-time surveys are only effective during the time when the surveys were solicited.
The measured results should be evaluated against the adjusted comfort zone for the specific building. There are two cases when evaluating thermal comfort: at a specific time or over a period of time.
For a mechanically conditioned space at an instance in time, the PMV and SET model shall be used to establish the comfort zone, and the local thermal discomfort shall be evaluated against the limit posed this standard as well.
For occupant-controlled naturally conditioned spaces, the measured results shall be check with the comfort zone established by adaptive model. To evaluate the thermal comfort over a period of time in a mechanically conditioned space, the exceedance hours are the sum of all the hours when the absolute value of PMV is greater than 0.
For an occupant-controlled naturally conditioned space, the exceedance hours are the sum of hours when the operative temperature falls outside of the lower and upper boundaries of the comfort zone.
Metabolic rate is the rate of transformation of chemical energy into heat and mechanical work by metabolic activities of an individual.
It is defined as per unit of skin surface area which equals to This is the energy produced from a unit skin surface area of an average person seated at rest.
These values are valid for an average adult with surface skin area of 1. The standard reminds the users that they should use their own judgment to match the activities being considered to the comparable activities in the table.
Except sedentary activities, metabolic rate for all other activities is likely to have range of variation. When the duration of an activity is equal or less than one hour, one can use a time-weighted metabolic rate.
As metabolic rates increase over 1. Clothing insulation refers to the heat transfer of the entire body, which includes the uncovered parts, such as hands and heads.
Overall, the above post-processing images reveal vast differences between the two designs, with the second one being clearly superior in terms of thermal comfort.
With a few simple modifications to the original ventilation system design, the overall thermal comfort was improved dramatically.
The whole simulation took only a few hours of manual and computational time, but it allowed us to identify the flaws and test potential design improvements.
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